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Copyright © 1990 - 2016 by Robert Dale Rogers. All rights reserved.
No portion of this book, except for a brief review, may be reproduced, or copied and transmitted, without permission of author. This book is for educational purposes only. The suggestions, recipes and historical information are not meant to replace a medical advisor. The author assumes no liability for unwise or unsafe usage by readers of this book.










(Impatiens capensis Meerb.)

(I. biflora Walt.)

(I. fulva)



(I. noli-tangere L.)

(I. occidentale)



(Impatiens balsamina L.)

(I. coccinea)



(I. wallerana Hook.f.)

(I. sultanii Hook.f.)



(I. glandulifera Royle)

(I. roylei)


PARTS USED- seeds, leaves, flowers

With fierce distracted eye Impatiens stands

Swells her pale cheeks and brandishes her hands,

With rage and hate the astonished groves alarms,

And hurls her infants from her frantic arms.



She brooks no condescension

From mortal hand, you know,

For, touch her e’er so gently, Impatiently she’ll throw

Her tiny little jewels,

Concealed in pockets small

Of her dainty, graceful garment,

And o’er the ground they fall.




Impatiens is from the Latin, meaning impatient, to put up with, to endure. This refers to the seedpods, that when ripe, burst open and scatter seed at the least pressure.

Balsamina is related to producing balsam, or balms to soothe.

Jewelweed may refer to the colorful, dangling flowers, the coil fired seeds, or the edge of the leaves, that when wet with dew or rain look like sparkling gems. The flowers are shaped like earrings and the underside of leaves are silver.

Noli-tangere is named for the Eurasian Touch Me Not Balsam from the Latin NOLI ME TANGERE “I don’t touch”; or more accurately “a warning without meddling”.

These were the words reportedly spoken by Christ to Mary Magdalene after the Resurrection (John 20:17). You had to be there.

Capensis refers to the Cape of Good Hope (a botanical error by Meerburgh, who believed it was introduced from Africa). He named it in 1775, thirteen years before Walter’s I. biflora, and the mistake has been upheld by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature ever since.

Impatiens walleriani is a garden annual that is named after Horace Waller, an English missionary and plant collector. It was originally called Impatiens sultani, after the Sultan of Zanzibar.

Roylei is named after Dr. Royle, a professor of botany who published Illustrations of the Botany of the Himalayan Mountains in 1839. He introduced the seeds into Britain in the same year. Glandulifera refers to the glands that secrete a spicy tar scent. Policeman’s Helmet refers to the bulbous rounded flowers that resemble British police headgear.

The Impatiens family is vast and almost incomprehensible, botanically speaking. Joseph Hooker, famous botanist and curator at Kew Gardens in England, attempted to make sense of the family before he died. He called the family, “deceitful above all plants...worse than orchids”.

Spotted Touch-Me-Not is one of my favourite twining wild plants. It is found throughout central and northern Alberta in ravines, and stream banks.

Western Touch-Me-Not grows in the same areas, and is considered a migrated Eurasian plant.

I have seen both in the wild very close to each other; the differences are minor. The former are usually a brighter orange flower, usually spotted with red or purple; the latter is a paler yellow with or without spots.

The young greens, up to a foot or so, can be cooked as a potherb, with a change of water. Some authors believe native people used the cooking water from jewelweed as a fly repellant.

Kelly Harlton, a noted wilderness instructor, notes the decocted herb turns the water dark black and quite astringent.

The seeds are edible, but I doubt you could collect enough to sustain yourself.

Some Native American tribes called it crowing cock, due to the flower’s form.

Historically, it was used for treating jaundice (called wild celandine). Spotted Touch Me Not stem juice was used by various Native tribes

for relief of a variety of skin complaints, usually in the form of a poultice of flowers, or mashed plant.

The Blackfoot, of the prairie region, rubbed the crushed plant on eczema and other skin rashes.

The Forest Potawatomi call it TWATUBÎGO-NÎAK, literally touch me not, while the Prairie Potawatomi call it WASAWA’SHIAK meaning, “yellow slippery”. Infusions were taken internally for chest colds or stomach cramps.

Others, such as the Cherokee, used I. capensis leaves as an infusion for measles; the root was given for babies “bold hives”.

The stems were decocted to ease childbirth; an interesting association with the oriental cousin.

The Iroquois infused the roots to help increase urination, and used cold infusions of the whole plant to help reduce fevers. The neighboring Ojibwa call the plant OZAAWASHKOJIIBIK.

The Mi’kmaq used the plant for jaundice; while others used the plant for stomach cramps.

A strong tea of leaves and stems was used as a skin cleanser, or ease the pain of sunburn.

The plants rarely produce seed on their main flowers. Instead they pollinate cleistogamous or “hidden marriage” flowers lower on the stem. These have no nectar, and require less energy. Because the plant is an annual, it ensures the plants survival, until cross-pollination can occur. The seed pods produced by either method are hair trigger, and led to the common name, Touch-Me-Not. On a hot summer day, you can hear them popping, much quieter than caragana peas, but still distinct.

An early French superstition was to make young girls touch the plant, and if she was not a virgin, the flower would recoil and fade away.

Garden     Balsam

Garden Balsam

The leaves can be dipped in water and take on a silvery sheen, due to some leaf coating that holds a thin layer of air on the surface.

Garden balsam is a well-known annual garden plant, usually started from seed, and set out after frost, for its pretty white, pink and purple flowers. Seed germinates in ten days, and can be separated one foot apart. No yellow flowered version has been developed as yet.

It is a popular garden annual in the Orient, and is used to dye silk.

Related species are used in Ethiopia by women to stain their feet and hands, and in Japan to paint their nails. In fact, one name for the flowers is ZHI JIA HUA, which means “fingernail flower”. Another name, FENG XIAN HUA means, Phoenix fairy flower.

In the Philippines, it is put in nests to keep eggs from spoiling.

In Fuji, seven to 15 flowers are boiled in water and given to treat whooping cough, spitting or coughing blood.

The fresh plant juice is applied to painful inflammation, carbuncles and bruises in Nepal, where it is known as PADAKE. The flowers are cooling and mucilage, and applied to stings and bites. The powdered seeds are given during labour to provide strength.

For hand fungus, the fresh flowers are simply crushed and applied directly.

The flowers are quite sweet with white petals the most efficient producers of reducing and non-reducing sugars at a rate of

23-27 mg/gram fresh weight, following by red, pink and purple in descending order.

Work by Dr. T.C.N. Singh, head of the Botany department at Annamalai University in Madras, India, looked at plant growth and music. He asked a friend to play his stringed Veena to a group of

I. balsamina plants. After one month the plants and controls were set outdoors and given just water. All plants grew at same rate for one week, but in the fifth week, the musical plants shot ahead and in next two weeks had 72% more leaves and were 20% taller. A good start in life is important.

Himalayan Balsam (I. glandulifera) is a native of the Himalayas, but naturalized to northern North America. It is a frost hardy annual with strong self-seeding tendency. When ripe, the seeds shoot with explosive force, up to several metres away.

It can grow to six feet (2 meters) with thick fleshy stems, with lilac, rose, purple and even white flowers. Growth is rapid, at up to 25 mm, or an inch per day.

F.S. Smythe wrote in the Valley of Flowers 1938 that when these plants “get hold of the ground, pastureland is permanently ruined”. Like Purple Loosestrife, it clogs the river banks and canals of England, with balsam bashing not uncommon amongst locals.

Snapweed is easily grown on the prairies, especially from the second generation onward, and is very popular in yards and gardens throughout Edmonton. In fact, escapees are prevalent in Mill Creek

Ravine, walking distance from my home. It has recently (2010) been designated a noxious weed in Alberta. Therefore, I have included it in my recent book Prohibited and (Ob)noxious Weeds.

The plant does represent impatience and the birth date of July 24th.

The succulent, juicy thick stems remind one of domestic Impatiens, while the yellow spotted pink/purple flowers resemble Patience Plant above. The stems are fleshy and hollow, like a succulent bamboo, and tinged in a copper bronze tone.

The stem sap can be used like the rest of the genus, for its soothing effect.

The seeds of the closely related I. gigantea are considered edible.

                      Himalayan     Balsam

                      Himalayan Balsam

Patience Plant (I. wallerana/sultanii) is the familiar impatiens, usually found indoors; in hanging baskets or on window sills and boxes. It is more sensitive to cold than Garden Balsam, with watery stems that relieve skin irritations. All the plants are annual, except patience plant that may be considered perennial indoors.

The petals or entire leaf can be used as a garnish for salads. They  are crunchy. Patience plant stalks are dipped in boiling water and the sap sucked out for liver pain in Africa. Both the leaves and root are considered abortifacient in decoction.




CONSTITUENTS - I. balsamina seed–balsaminones, 2-methoxy-1,4- naphthoquinone, saponins, various glycosides including quercitin and kaempferol derivatives, and fixed oils including balsaminasterol and parinaric acid, Ib-AMPs (peptides); numerous baccaharane glycosides called hosenkosides.

Pericarp of fruit- 2-methoxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone, balsaminones A, B and C. flowers- flavonols, flavanoid pigments, naphthoquinones and anthocyanin pigments. corolla- balsaminolate, impatienolate and other napthoquionone sodium salts. leaf- 1,2,4-trihydroxy naphthalene-4-glucoside, kaemperferol, kaempferol-3- arabinoside, scopoletin, gentisic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid plant- hosenkol A (triterpenoid), impatienol (bis-naphthoquinone derivative) bud- indole-3-acetonitril stem- various flavonoids including kaempferol-3-glucoside, quercitin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside,  cyanidin-3-glucoside.

Root- bisnaphthoquinone, methylene-3,3’-bilawsone, two naphthoquinones ( lawsone, and 2-methoxy-1,4-naphtho-quinone), two coumarin derivatives (scopoletin and isofraxidin) and spinasterol.

The root tips of I. balsamina, I. capensis, and I. sultani contains anthocyanin pigmentation from cyanidin-3-glycoside. flowers- anthocyanins, sugars.

I. capensis- lawsone (2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) salicylic acid, gentisic acid, p-hydrobenzoic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, scopoletin, and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone.

I. sultani- scopoletin and trace of ferulic acid

I. walleriana- ferulic and caffeic acids

I. glandulifera- p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, gentisic, protocatechuic, ferulic, p-coumaric, caffeic acids, as well as scopoletin. This species contains the highest amounts of naphthoquinone derivatives in genus, including lawsone, and 1,4-naphthoquinones.

The Wild Touch Me Not is an important wilderness remedy for rashes, and allergic reactions to aggressive plants like nettle, cow parsnip and poison ivy.

One physician in 1957 treated 115 people with poison ivy rashes over a period of time. He found that 108 (over 95%) cleared up in only two to three days using the fresh juice.

David Winston, noted herbalist, says that jewelweed succus applied 3-4 hours after exposure to poison ivy or oak is 90% effective. The fresh juice can be frozen in ice cubes for longer storage.

It relieves the pain of insect bites, burns, sprains, and a variety of skin diseases including ringworm. This mild fungicidal action makes it a good choice for athlete’s foot, especially on the trail. Work by Thomas Sproston, at the University of Vermont in 1950, tested 73 plant extracts for anti-fungal activity and found Wild Touch Me Not, Nasturium and Muskmelon the most active.

It can be made into an ointment for hemorrhoids, warts, corns, and bunions.

Jewelweed is a good hair rinse for itchy scalp.

Although lawsone, the active anti-inflammatory, crystalline substance can be found throughout the plant stem and leaves, it is most abundant in the small reddish protuberances near the root.

Work by Abrams Motz V et al, J Ethnopharm 2012 143:1 found jewelweed mash effective at reducing poison ivy dermatitis, but not the extracts and soaps made from them. They believe lawsone is not active ingredient, but perhaps plant saponins.

Lawsone is found in Garden Balsam flowers and Henna, both used as dyes for nails or hair.

Lawsone is used as UVA sunscreen agent. In one test, panelists with normal skin colour were exposed to UVA/UVB light to determine their minimal erythema dosage. They were then exposed to 1.2-4

times plant extract or water control. When used at 10%, the jewelweed extract, pH 5-7, provided 2.4 SPF units of protection from UV erythema.

In tests on the plant including alcohol, acidic and saline solutions, as well as ether; the plant showed activity against fungi and both gram positive and negative bacteria.

Garden Balsam Touch Me Not stems contain a soothing juice applied to stinging nettle, poison ivy, or inflamed skin of various origins.

In the folk medicine of Japan, the white flower petals were painted topically on the skin for dermatitis, including urticaria. In Japan the plant is known as HOSENKA.

The flower is an important part of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and known as JI XING HUA (Mandarin), or JEK CHIN FA (Cantonese).

Alcohol extractions of the flowers exhibit pain-relieving activity in both central and peripheral tissue. Imam et al, J Ethnopharm 142:1.

The flower is used for amenorrhea, trauma and injury to tissue such as sprains, arthralgia, furuncles, and ringworm. It is taken as a tea infusion, or washed on affected areas.

From the white petals have been isolated anti-anaphylactic, anti-histaminic and anti-pruritic compounds.

Oku et al, Phytotherapy Research 1999 13:6, found phenolic compounds of petals were effective in regulating hypotension caused by platelet activating factor. Later work by the same author in same journal, 15:6 found 35% petal extracts effective for chronic serious pruritis and atopic dermatitis.

In volume 15:8, the same author reported on a 95% ethanol extract of the dry aerial parts effective against 5 gram positive, and two gram negative bacteria. It was also found effective against drug resistant fungal infections.

Work in Biol Pharm Bull 2002 25:5 by same author identified several compounds in the corolla with significant COX-2 inhibition, supporting the traditional use for treating articular rheumatism, pain and swelling.

Fukumoto et al, Phytotherapy Research 1995 10:3 found white petal extracts prevent anaphylactic shock in laboratory studies.

Garden balsam, and Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) are used interchangeably, by some practitioners of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Known as TOU KU TSAO, both plants are used for the above conditions.

But it is the seeds that are most valued; a tradition that was brought from India at an earlier date. Known as JI XING ZI meaning, “short temper” in Mandarin, the seed is considered warming, pungent, bitter, stimulating, relaxing and softening.

It affects the heart and liver meridians primarily.

The seeds are used with regularity in formulas for relief of symptoms related to amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea.

This includes scanty, painful or absent menses, and unknown abdominal lumps.

It softens hardness, disperses stagnant blood, and removes toxins.

They exhibit contraceptive effect, as the seeds are inhibitory on ovulation.

As might be expected, the seeds are abortive, and have been used in miscarriage, as well as prolonged pregnancy and stalled labor.

In laboratory studies, oral doses of the seed extract show contraceptive action in mice, and decreased weight of the uterus and ovaries.

The seeds are used as a digestive relaxant, especially with hard painful abdomen or intestinal colic.

The seed tea has been used traditionally for esophageal obstruction, or choking due to the accidental swallowing of bones.

More recently, the seeds have been found to contain saponins and fatty acids active against esophageal and stomach cancer cell lines.

Thirty cases of esophageal cancer and 26 of gastric cancer treated with I. balsamina seed and honey, obtained symptomatic improvement with respect to vomiting, and pain of the thorax and epigastrium.

Balsaminone C from seed exhibits cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines A549, Bel-7402 and HeLa. Pei H et al, Zhong Yao Cai 2012 35:3.

The whole plant, but particularly the pod, shows very strong activity against Helicobacter pylori, even exceeding the drug metronidazole. Wang et al, Am J Chin Med 2009 37:4.

Wang et al, Fitoterapia 2012 April 10 confirmed anti-bacterial properties and activity against gastric adenocarcinoma necrosis.

Garden Balsam seeds have been found to contain peptides that inhibit a wide range of fungi and bacteria, and yet, not cytotoxic to cultured human cells.

Work carried out by Tailor et al in the United Kingdom, showed the peptides to be 20 amino acids long and the smallest plant derived anti- microbial peptides isolated to date (Sept 1997). They are arginine and cysteine-based.

Continuing work by Patel et al, University College in London, is trying to determine the mode of action of this protein; and possible sites of interaction.

Work by Fan X et al, Pharmazie 2013 68(7) identified ib-AMP4 as an antimicrobial peptide in plant. In combination with thymol it was effective against drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC) ATCC700603, and combined vancomycin or oxacillin against Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) ATCC51299.

The leaves and flowers have been examined with ether and water extractions demonstrating activity against fungi, yeast, gram positive bacteria and mycobacterium.

Water extracts of the flowers inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, the latter infamous for strep throat. The red and white flowers are considered superior for some reason. Probably due to red and white throat.

Ishiguro et al, Phytotherapy Research 2000 14:1 found aerial parts contain impatienol, which exhibits significant testosterone 5alpha- reductase inhibitory activity. That is, it blocks the intracellular metabolism of testosterone and inhibits overgrowth of prostate suggesting use in prevention or treatment of cancer.

Several anti-pruritic compounds named balsaminones, have been isolated from the pericarp of garden balsam by

Ishiguro et al. If you want more information you can email to or read the Journal of Natural Products 1998.

More intensive research is warranted, considering the seeds apparent anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and antioxidant properties.

The leaves and flowers, when decocted, dissolve out significant amounts of magnesium sulphate, the organic form of epsom salts, perhaps explaining part of their anti-inflammatory and muscle relaxant properties.

The compound, 2-methoxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone inhibits Wntsignaling, which is a step in formation of cancer cells. Mori

et al, J Nat Med 2011 65:1. This compound is found in the root of Snapweed, as well.

This is a powerful medicine, with some degree of toxicity. Dosage is important.

The related I. bicolor shows inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, a marker for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Shahwar et al,

J Med Plants Res 2010 4:3.


Impatiens (I. roylei) is indicated in acute pain of nerve type, and it not only often gives rapid relief, but in many cases apparently effects a cure of the nerve condition. It has also a beneficent action, and patients frequently report, in addition to relief of symptoms, a much improved mental state with loss of depression and fears, a generally brighter outlook being obtained.

Amongst cases successfully treated are intense headaches, sciatica, acute neuralgias, tic douloureux, and acute pain in malignant disease. In some cases it has given relief after morphia has failed.

DOSE- The mother tincture was originally prepared by Dr. Bach (see flower essences below), from the mauve flowers only by trituration.



The seed oil of I. balsamina contains alpha spinasterol, beta ergosterol, balsaminasterol and parinaric acid, the latter of particular interest.



Touch Me Not water is good for skin itching, biting, sores, and scabby breasts.          BRUNSCHWIG


Impatiens (I. balsamina) flower essence is used for those who are irritable, impulsive, impetuous, active and intelligent; though prone to nervous tensions and accidents. They are given to outbursts of temper; and is similar to the Impatiens flower essence of the Bach system.           FLORIAS DE MINAS

Impatiens (I. glandulifera) flower essence is for impatience, irritation, tension and intolerance. The essence helps restore patience, acceptance and an ability to flow with the pace of life and others.          BACH

The mother stock is prepared from the pale mauve flowers only, even though the red outnumber them by ten to one.

Research, reported to FES suggests the flower essence may be of benefit in various physical symptoms. Gayle Eversole found oral drops helped relieve phantom pain from spider bite, and Mimi Ellisom the pain associated with osteoporosis with fractured vertebrate and sinus pain.

It is interesting to note that Bach initially gave a different indication  for its use; “excruciating and very acute pain, no matter what the cause…It is indicated in acute pain of nerve type and it not only gives rapid relief, but in many cases apparently effect a cure of the nerve condition. It has also a beneficent action and patients frequently report, in depression and tears, a generally brighter outlook being obtained.

Amongst cases successfully treated may be mentioned intense headaches, sciaticas, acute neuralgias, tic douloureux and acute pain in malignant disease. In some cases it has given relief after morphine has failed.”

Jewelweed essence promotes a gentle, loving, joyous, humble, peaceful state of being-ness. Helps one to face one’s fears with this attitude- to feel them without being overwhelmed and let go of them. It allows change to manifest while remaining inwardly centered, feeling love and loved.          LIGHT MOUNTAIN

Indian Balsam essence is for the warrior at inner peace, waiting patiently for the right moment to act.          HORUS

Pink Impatiens is for the idealist, the moralist who compromises through struggling to maintain his or her standards.


IMpatiens (I. wallerana) essence calms anger, encourages patience and tolerance in those who get easily annoyed and aggressive with others.            HAWAIIAN GAIA


Red Garden Balsam (I. balsamina) represents generosity. It is about giving, and giving itself with bargaining.

It also is about generosity in the physical; as it likes abundance and likes to give abundantly.

White and purple balsam is spontaneously generous, and gives of itself unstintingly.

Pink Garden Balsam contains psychic generosity, of thought and act, and gives for the joy of giving.          THE MOTHER

Patience Plant represents the works of love, the best condition for work.          THE MOTHER

One day, while sitting by the stream and contemplating what felt like a dire financial situation, I asked for a plant to come to assist me… My gaze wandered to Jewelweed…the windless day found one stalk waving energetically at me. I picked one of its leaves and put it in

the water, watching as the silvery sheen sparkled…and allowed my consciousness to move into the daydream of Jewelweed.

Suddenly I was walking through silver birch and other silver plants onto the grounds of a silver castle. There was…a large pool with a silver fish [that] stepped out of the pool and became a silver Queen. She said, “I am only silver in my fluidity and so you must stay fluid”… She poured silver fluid into me through the top of my head, reminding me of the abundance in my life…

As I became aware of the leaf in the water, I again felt as fluid as the leaf and realized how stuck I had become in a negative thought

pattern about money and how it was binding up my energy. A few days later I received an unexpected check in the mail thanks to the help of Jewelweed.          MONTGOMERY


The Sugar Plant, which goes by the botanical name of Impatiens sultani, grows on its branches granules which crystallise and which not only taste like cane sugar but also contain an equal proportion of sucrose and dextrose.

When these crystallised granules are gathered others grow in their place and it does not sound, therefore, such an extravagant idea, especially in times of sugar rationing, to suggest growing a sugar plant in a pot as a centre piece for everyone’s dining-room table and reach out to it for granules when wishing to sweeten our tea, coffee, or other beverages!          VICOMTE de MAUDUIT

Overburdened with the self-imposed pressure of too many things to do and far too little time allocated, irritation and frustration build up inside, until one is dangerously close to bursting. Others are forcefully and selfishly ejected out of the way. There is no room for anyone else.

With hair trigger sensitivity, one slight touch or poke, a glance or comment and one explodes with great force, flinging anger with expulsive dispersion. More than impatience, there is such a lightning fast, sudden, startling, far-flung burst of temper that anyone nearly might just jump out of their skin…As impatience deepens to anger, the anger can deepen to rage, hate, malice and cruelty. The intimidating, malicious manner gives off the clear signal of ‘touch-me-not’ or else. Their whole life is fiery, forceful, flaring, frantic and frenzied.”              VERMEULEN


Snapweed, or Impatiens (I. roylei) smoothness of the skin is most striking- being filled with water the stems are cool to touch. Yet for all the boldness of the growth, the plants are rather delicate and crush easily. Impatiens gains protection by growing en masse and lacks the fibre and woody strength of other plants.

The smell of Impatiens grows stronger when it is touched. The scent is unusual: strong and pungent rather than sweet, like a spicy tar, not unpleasant but warding rather than attracting. Again there is a sense of isolation rather than joining as this scent dominates the area.

The jagged edge to the leaves is antagonistic. Saw-toothed edges look as though they would cut- a visual cue to keep away. Crush the stems and they sound like crunching a cane, a hollow pain as the fibres are torn...

The explosive force with which the seeds are propelled...have already been noted.          J. BARNARD


Wild Touch Me Not, or Jewelweed juice is best preserved in ice cube trays frozen. This is done by pressing or juicing the whole plant stems and flowers.

TINCTURE- Make the fresh plant tincture at 1:2 with only 20% alcohol.

Ointments for hemorrhoids, etc. are best made with sun infusion of whole plant using coconut oil. Suppositories can then be shaped easily at later date.

ICE CUBES- The best way to store the juice of jewelweed is ice cubes. I prefer the small cocktail size for this particular plant, as you only need small amounts at a time. Remember to mark and identify your bag of ice cubes.


DECOCTION- 3-12 grams. For cancer 15-60 grams are used

INFUSION-flowers- 3-6 grams

CAUTION- Being a uterine stimulant, and having some cumulative toxicity, the seeds are contra-indicted during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Do not use continuously for any length of time.

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