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CANADA GOLDENROD

MEADOW GOLDENROD

(Solidago canadensis L.) (S. lepida)

(S. pruinosa)

STIFF GOLDENROD

(S. rigida L.)

(Oligoneuron rigidum [L.] Small)

GIANT GOLDENROD

LATE GOLDENROD

EARLY GOLDENROD

(S. gigantea Ait.)

(S. serotina Ait.)

(S. gigantea var. serotina)

 

MISSOURI GOLDENROD

LOW GOLDENROD

(S. missouriensis Nutt.)

(S. glaberrima)

NORTHERN GOLDENROD

(S. multiradiata Ait.)

 

MOUNTAIN GOLDENROD

NARROW GOLDENROD

(S. simplex)

(S.  decumbens)

(S. spathulata DC.)

SHOWY GOLDENROD

GRAY GOLDENROD

(S. nemoralis Ait.)

 

VELVETY GOLDENROD

(S. mollis Bartl.)

FLAT TOPPED GOLDENROD

GRASS LEAVED GOLDENROD

(S. graminifolia [L.] Salisbury)

(Euthamia graminifolia [L.] Nutt.)

 

 

PARTS USED- leaves, roots, flowers

 

 

Because its sun-shaped blossoms show How souls receive the light of God And unto earth give back that glow,

I thank him for the golden rod.    

LUCY LARCOMB

 

And she’s bound his wound with the goldenrod, full fast in her arms he lay.    

ARCHIE FISHER

 

O the Missouri Goldenrod is right you know

All things pass quickly away yet appear again in late April when the rain on the roof is only the hounds of heaven and wildflowers open like a crowd of blue angels blossoming in the wind.    

REAUME

 

Willow trees are turning Maple leaves are burning, Goldenrod’s afire!

Fairy torches glimmer Woods are in a shimmer And the flames leap higher! November rain is all in vain Down, down, it dashes.

O Goldenrod! Goldenrod!

You’ve burned the woods to ashes.    

ANGELINA WRAY

 

 

Introduction

Solidago is from SOLIDUS meaning healthy and strong and AGO to make whole, or solid. It may be from the Latin SOLDARE, to make whole. All refer to the ability of the plant to repair torn flesh. The Latin SOLIDUS was used in later times for a coin, a solid disc of metal.

Mercenaries were paid a soldo a day. Euthamia is Greek for clustered flowers. Oligo means small, few or scanty; neuron means nerve.

Goldenrod gets its common name from the Biblical Rod of Aaron.

The ancient Druids used goldenrod as a divining tool for finding water.

The early plant leaves make a suitable potherb.

Tea from the leaves and flowers of some species have a mild licorice flavour. Over two hundred years ago the flowers were dried and shipped to China for a high price.

Goldenrod poultices were used traditionally by the Syrians to treat breast tumours.

Blue mountain tea, or Bohea is the name of a tea made from the dried leaves that have been dried over a slow fire. It was prescribed for those suffering exhaustion or fatigue.

Tea prepared from the leaves and flowers has been used traditionally for sensations of paralysis.

The young flower heads make an effective thickening agent for bush soups.

Some Cree call Canadian Goldenrod, CHACHAMOS KAKEW meaning, “it makes one sneeze”, while the Northern Cree call it EWAPOSAWAK NEPHEHKAN.

It is also known as OHSAWCIYIPIYK.

Goldenrod has been accused of causing pollen allergies, but the true culprit is Ragweed that flowers at the same time. And besides, the pollen of Goldenrod is too heavy to be carried by the wind, and must rely upon bees and other insects for dispersal.

The galls, mentioned below, were used by some native healers to make a tea for kidney troubles.

The Meskwaki tribe of Wisconsin had a unique use for Canadian Goldenrod. When a child was late learning to talk or laugh, they bathed the child in a magical broth of the flower and bones of an animal that had died when the child was born.

The Thompson of British Columbia call it, Yellow Topped Flower, or Paralyzed Person’s Ground Growth. The related S. decumbens is Hairy Top or Bushy Head.

Other tribes such as the Iroquois used the root as part of a compound decoction for babies that start suddenly during sleep. The Zuni chewed crushed blossoms for sore throats, and drank infusions to relieve body pain; while the Ojibwa combined the dried flowers with those from Echinacea and Giant Anise Hyssop as a poultice to treat burns.

The Chippewa call it GIZISOMUKIKI, meaning sun medicine. The Ojibwa name for one species is A’DJIDAMO’WANO.

Today, some Spanish New Mexicans mash the fresh plant, and mix it with soap before binding it to sore throats.

The roots, like yarrow, can be chewed on or placed into cavities to relieve the pain of dental caries.

Mountain Goldenrod decoctions were used by the Thompsons in B.C. to restore appetite. In the Appalachians, goldenrod leaves have been long used as a tonic for chronic fatigue and nervous exhaustion.

Giant Goldenrod blossoms are infused as a tea by the Potawatomi to treat fevers. Extracts from Giant Goldenrod have been patented as environmentally safe insecticides containing polyacetylene, falcarinidol and falcarindione. Above ground parts of S. gigantea, mugwort and parsnip extracted with 70% alcohol, show insecticidal activity.

Flat-Topped Goldenrod root decoctions are used by Chippewa for chest pain and lung trouble. The Ojibwa infuse the flowers for the same purpose, calling the plant WASA’WAKWUNE’K.

Showy Goldenrod root decoctions were given by the Houma to patients suffering yellow jaundice.

The Iroquois used root decoctions for kidneys, while the Mahuna decocted the leaves to treat burns and skin ulcers.

Stiff Goldenrod root was decocted, cooled and used by the Chippewa as an enema, while an infusion was used for difficult urination.

Goldenrod has been cultivated in the past for its domestic source of latex rubber, like the dandelion. Henry Ford approached his friend and neighbour, Thomas Edison, about finding a native plant to produce rubber for his car tires.

He was becoming alarmed at the British control of rubber plantations, and so after working with many plants, Edison settled on goldenrod.

As a boy, he had worked the railroads, and so he asked station agents to send him the different goldenrod plants that grew in their region. Thousands of plants poured into his lab, and by crossing and re- crossing species produced a fourteen foot tall goldenrod yielding 12% rubber.

This rubber is resilient and long lasting, with samples found in his laboratory fifty years later still elastic and rot free.

Another scientist, L. Polhamus continued the work and found two species suitable for making rubber, but the idea was not pursued commercially.

It has been suggested this same substance be used for chewing gum. In 1948, an experimental agriculture station in Texas published detailed instruction for growing sweet goldenrod for oil to be used in chewing gum, candies and deodorants.

The chewed fresh leaves can be applied directly to burns, insect bites and stings.

Remember that dried goldenrod makes a good emergency tinder bundle for fires. Like birch bark, and usnea, it burns strongly and persistently.

Several species of goldenrod are thought to be toxic to livestock, especially sheep, but this may be due to a parasitic fungus (Coleosporium) growing on the plant.

Both S. canadensis and S. rigida are recommended by the Alberta Research Council as excellent native reclamation plants. The seeds are small yielding 1.7 million per kilogram for S. canadensis, and 2 million for S. rigida.

Solidago species have been shown to accumulate aluminum and metabolize TCE.

Canada Goldenrod (S. canadensis) is the more valuable plant medicinally, and more aggressive, where there is sufficient moisture.

S. rigida is recommended for fescue grassland and mixed grass prairie mixtures. Goldenrod produces some of the deepest taproots of native plants, reaching down eleven feet down into the prairie soil.

Occasionally, a gall is found on the goldenrod. This contains an insect grub that was placed in one end of a red osier dogwood stem, and sealed with pitch. In eating its way to the other end, it would efficiently hollow out the tube for use as a pipe stem. The gall grubs make handy bait for ice-fishing, or emergency food. Woodpeckers enjoy them as a winter food.

If you look carefully, you will find that the galls all appear at the same height on the Goldenrod stem.

These plants support a number of interesting insect galls. They can be gall midges, or a whitish caterpillar, or a small brown marked winged fly. All can be gathered in winter, and brought inside to “hatch”, in an enclosed container.

The Goldenrod fly (Eurosta solidaginis) larvae prepare for winter by producing calcium phosphate, glycerol, an alcohol, and sorbitol, a sugar. The lower the temperature, the more they produce and lower the freezing point of their blood. They are capable of producing a protein that promotes freezing. In effect, the protein mimics ice crystals by providing nucleation sites for ice crystal formation, preventing the larvae from achieving super-cooling. The formation of ice crystals tears cell organelles and membranes, and these larvae have perfected the art of survival in very cold climates. One Arctic beetle can super- cool down to 78 below zero F.

Leafhoppers supply ants with excess sap from Goldenrods, and in turn the ants protect the leaves from insects such as the goldenrod beetle.

Goldenrod is the official state flower of Nebraska (S. gigantea), Alabama and Kentucky (S. altissima).

When free to roam, dogs have been observed eating goldenrod, probably trying to self medicate.

Coleosporin solidagenesis is a rust that leaves dark mold spots on leaves.

The herb causes abortion in cattle, death in sheep (one pound dry herb every four hours), and numerous bleeding and feeding problems in horses. Avoid this herb in animal products in general.

Recent demand for stable natural pigments for the natural fibre market, has led to industrial production of goldenrod species for yellow dye in Europe. The work done in England by Dr. David Hill at the University of Bristol, as well as German collaborators, should lead to industrial organic dye production techniques that can be adapted to the Canadian prairies.

 

Goldenrod

Goldenrod

 

 

MEDICINAL

CONSTITUENTS- salicylic acid, various polygalic acid glycosides, clerodane diterpenes, leiocarposide, various flavonoids including quercitin, and rutin, polyacetylenes, and tannins. There is differentiation between the different goldenrods as follows.

S. canadensis- terpenoids like kolavenol, and various kolavenic acids, triterpene saponins (12.5%): bisdesmoside of the bayogenins; oleanolic acid, beta-1,2-fructans and other water soluble acidic polysaccharides, leiocarposide, cholorgenic acid, essential oil, cyclocolorenone ( and its precursor (-)-alpha gurjunene), 6 matricaria esters, diterpenes of the trans clerodane and labdanum type; 2’-hydroxy-4’,6’-

di-0-beta-0-gluco-pyranosyl-butrrophenone; diterpenoids like solidagenone, and solidagoditerpene A; and flavonoids such as quercitrin, hyperoside, rutin and astragalin.

Flower- 3,4-di-0-caffeoylquinic acid, solicanolide. carotenoids

The root contains cis-dehydromatricaria ester.

S. graminifolia- polyphenols, crude rubber (up to 1.7%), schaftoside and

isoshaftoside (flowers) and beta-sitosterol.

S. missouriensis- kauran-16-ol, 7-hydroxykaur-16-en-19-oic acid; 7,13-abietadien- 3-ol, 13-epi-manoyloxide, kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, 7,13-abietadien -3-one and 2-ol acetate; and numerous other diterpenoids.

S. nemoralis- 16-kauranol, 16-kauren-19-oic acid, 15-hydroxy-16-kauren-19-oic acid, 17-hydroxy-16-kauren-19-oic acid, alpha-copaene ( 42% of bud/blossom), various terpenes; diterpenoids like ent-7,13-abietadien-18-oic acid, ent-7,13- abietadien-5-ol, and rugosolide.

S. rigida- crude rubber ( up to 2%), polyphenols, and 16-kauren-19-oic acid.

S. gigantea- solidagoic acids A and B, 6-deoxy-solidagolactone IV- 18,19-olide; quercitin, isoquercitrin, rutin, giganteasaponins, triterpene saponins (9%): bisdesmoside of the bayogenins, volatile oils, and caffeic acids, including chlorogenic acid.

Two main organs are affected by goldenrod, the kidneys and upper respiratory system. To both these areas, a drying, cooling and restorative property is imparted due to the bitter and pungent nature of the plant.

Water retention is decreased so that acute urinary obstructions are relieved. Swollen ankles and puffy eyelids are a key symptom to the use of this herb. Both excess urea and cholesterol are removed, along with gravel and small stones.

The herb is a reliable aquaretic, increasing urine release and reducing inflammation due to infection or irritation from stones and gravel.

A plant patent from the former USSR was based on goldenrod (S. canadensis) extracted with 95% alcohol, producing flavonoids with an ability to quickly remove nitrogenous substances from the kidneys.

Like its European cousin, S. virgaurea, the Canadian Goldenrod (S. canadensis) contains leiocaropside, a potent diuretic, anti-

inflammatory and analgesic compound. The herb is bitter, sweet and cold.

It is believed that the inhibition of leukocyte elastase, as well as ester saponin effect on the release of stored ACTH in the pituitary, plays a key role. This, in turn induces both the synthesis and release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands. The pathway may be more complex, but it does make sense. Melzig et al, Z Phtyother 2000 21:2.

The herbalist, Ananda Wilson reports that the herb is quite useful for seasonal affective disorder, another bright sunny yellow flower like St. John’s Wort.

She suggests it for SAD and cold, gloomy blues. Kiva Rose likes goldenrod for the above as well as digestive stagnation causing feelings of sadness, stuck-ness and despair.

Hemorrhagic nephritis along with inflammation and bleeding is helped.

Recent studies support goldenrod’s claim of hypotensive activity and yet is gentle enough to be used by children.

For nasal and sinus congestion, associated with hay fever and allergies, Goldenrod will help. It’s anti-catarrhal and anti-inflammatory properties help here, as do gargles for laryngitis, and thrush. This is due, in part, to the bioflavonoids present in the herb.

For acute rhinitis and sinusitis, Goldenrod combines well with Cockleburr.

Flower extracts significantly reduced coughs and airway resistance associated with asthma and other respiratory conditions. The anti-tussive effect was 10% lower than codeine. Sutovska M et al, Int J Biol Macromol 2013 52:192-7.

Matthew Wood finds it a superlative remedy for cat allergies, taken in small amounts. He mentions that Solidago eyes look like a person who just got out of a swimming pool and often have skin welts associated with allergies.

Water, alcohol and ether extracts from the leaves, stems and flowers, show activity against both gram positive and negative bacteria. Early work by Bishop and MacDonald, Can J Botany 1956 29 found alcohol extracts effective against both Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli.

Canada Goldenrod has been studied in Germany by Franz et al. They found in the herb a neutral fructan and acidic rhamnogalactan that decreases sarcoma 180 tumours by 82% and 72% respectively.

Six matricaria esters, isolated from S. canadensis show activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. avium. Planta Medica 1998 64:7.

The diterpene solidagenone shows significant gastroprotective activity compared to lanzoprazole. Schmeda-Hirschmann et al, J of Ethnopharmacology 2002 81:1.

Solicanolide, isolated from the flowers, shows cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines, including A549, DLD-1 and WS1. Bradette-Hebert et al, Chem Pharm Bull 2008 56:1.

The fresh leaves make a good addition to burn salves, combining well with yarrow and plantain leaf oils.

The dry and powdered leaves make a good styptic agent for shaving cuts; whereas the dried powdered flowers have been mixed with fresh cream in Russia, and used to heal indolent ulcers and tuberculosis of the skin.

One indication of its use is that the legs are dry and scaly, and the scalp may have chronic eczema, scabs and sores.

Extracts from goldenrod (S. virgaurea) have been found to have spermicidal activity in human semen. The relevance in herbal medicine is unknown.

The extracts are significant sources of anti-oxidative properties with the ability to scavenge free radicals.

Early work by the Eclectic physician, Dr. Ellingwood advised use of both flower and root tea for prostate troubles.

Work by McCune et al, found Canadian Goldenrod extracts more powerful in antioxidant activity than green tea, or ascorbic acid. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2002 82:2-3.

This was later confirmed by Condrat et al, Food Sci Tech Res 2009 15:1.

Triterpenoid saponins present in this species inhibit Candida albicans and other yeast growth, in German studies by Bader et al, 1987.

An 80% ethanol extract showed moderate hypolipidemic activity in high-fat fed hamsters. Huang Y et al, J Asian Nat Prod Res 2013 15(4):319-24.

This species is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for aiding digestion, flu-like headaches, sore throats, and gastric pain in children including de-worming. It is called HUANG-HUA TS’AO, “Yellow flowered Grass”, or K’AI-HOU CHIEN meaning, “throat opening arrow”.

A study on Giant Goldenrod (S. gigantea) extracts revealed anti- inflammatory properties similar to diclofenac-Na. It exhibited moderate spasmolytic and diuretic properties, suggested empirically for centuries by herbalists.

The herb does not possess calcium antagonistic activity, associated with its anti-spasmodic use in cardiovascular conditions.

Giant Goldenrod has been found to possess moderate anti-fungal activity in work by Webster et al, J Ethnopharm 2008 115:1.

Combine goldenrod and wild bergamot for vaginal yeast infections in form of douche or sitz bath.

Extracts of S. virgaurea var. gigantea were found by Sung to contain three mild cytotoxic compounds against a panel of cancer cell lines.

Solidago species and their analgesic effect are believed due to selective action on a single receptor. Sampson et al, Phytother Res 2000 14:1.

The salty and warm nature of Goldenrod makes it useful in diarrhea, recto-colitis, Crohn’s disease and chronic enteritis, all of which may stem from Kidney Yang deficiency. Simon Mills suggests the herb for flatulent dyspepsia and respiratory conditions associated with nervous tension and restlessness.

Stiff or Rigid Goldenrod (S. rigida) was the prized styptic plant of Dr. Bone, a New Jersey physician, who used the plant to suppress hemorrhages from large blood vessels by local applications of a dry powder.

The plant is tonic, astringent and styptic and an infusion or powder can be used in treating internal hemorrhage as well. The essential oil is diuretic in action.

The Eclectic physician, Milton Welch considered S. rigida a useful “diaphoretic and stimulant, also to promote the menstrual flow, and to relieve colic and gastric irritation.”

Maria Treben helps us think of goldenrod in another way. She believed that emotions are worked off through the kidneys and that emotional shock, stress and disappointment are all relieved by drinking the herb tea.

Matthew Wood contributes this, from The Book of Herbal Wisdom.

“The kidney medicines are generally either masculine in character (Rattlesnake Master, Indian Hemp (Dogbane), Gravel Root, or feminine (Goldenrod, Lady’s Mantle, Queen Anne’s Lace (Wild Carrot). Goldenrod pulls the blood into the kidney from the vessels; Gravel Root balances the solids and minerals; Lady’s Mantle allows the more refined fluids back into the bloodstream, condensing the urine; while Queen Anne’s Lace pulls the coarse substances out into the ureter and on down to the bladder.

Rattlesnake Master and Indian Hemp support the “fire” of the kidneys, the adrenals, so that the fluids will be pumped along and the fire kept hot.

Goldenrod and Lady’s Mantle support the yin or water, sedating the heat and maintaining the fluids. Water Lily and Lady’s Slipper, also very feminine plants, build up and tonify the yin or fluids. Well that, at any rate, is my personal mythology of kidney remedies”.

Any of the Goldenrods can be used, although Flat Topped is one of the sweeter varieties in our region.

Think of Goldenrod when other diuretics like Dianthus or Water Plantain are indicated, but unavailable.

Also think of this herb for bladder weakness associated with loss of tone. It combines well with pipsissewa for benefit to the bladder and kidneys.

Goldenrod should be considered in lipemic and uric acid diathesis type irises, helping to remove excess cholesterol from arteries and relieve gouty, arthritic conditions associated with uric acid deposition. Deep, inflamed pimples and dry, bloodshot eyes lead us to goldenrod.

CAUTION-Fan et al, Acta Pharm Sinica 2007 28:10 found Goldenrod species, Yin Zhi Huang, taken orally, decreases plasma concentrations of the drug omeprazole, inducing both CYP3A4 and CY2C19 herb drug interactions.

 

 

HOMEOPATHY

Goldenrod (S. virgaurea) is a remedy for feelings of weakness with repeated colds of tuberculosis (2X potency). It is for fever and alternating chills, with nasal congestion, burning throat, and pain in the kidney area.

The stomach may have a bitter taste, especially at night.

A coated tongue with a very scant brown and sour urine indicate goldenrod.

There may be bronchitis, with or without blood, but always with asthmatic tendency.

Fibroid tumours may put pressure on the bladder, or the uterus has lost tone and become inflamed, also exerting pressure.

The lower limbs have developed a blotchy appearance.

It is used for reddened, glistening conjunctivitis that looks like the person has just stepped out of a chlorinated shower.

DOSE- Tincture to the third potency. In allergy desensitizing, use the 30th potency or higher. It works surprisingly well in some cases of cat allergies.

 

 

**********Goldenrod

 

 

ESSENTIAL OIL

CONSTITUENTS- S. canadensis- curlone(23.5%), germacrene D (8-40%), gamma2-cadinene, non-1-ene (14-36%), methyl chavicol, mycrene, borneol, bornyl acetate (4-8%), cadinene, limonene (2-11%), sabinene (6-17%) beta-phelladrene

(1-2%), alpha pinene (3-8%), and minor amounts of spathulenol, alpha cadinol, cadinenes, p-cymene, and (E)-beta-ocimene.

Hydrodistillation of the green parts also yielded two sesquiterpenes, 6-epi-beta cubebene, and 6-epi-alpha cubebene.

Yields can vary with stage of development. In July, before flowering about 0.38%; in mid-August (full bloom) 1.4-1.5%); end of flowering (1.5-1.9%). The flowers average yield of 1.7%, leaves 0.9%, and stems 0.2%.

Root oil- The root yields about 0.5% oil containing 20% thymol, 6.26% alpha copaene, and 5.5% carvacrol.

S. gigantea- (0.5-0.7%) containing chiefly gamma cadinene diterpenes of the cis- clerodane type, including among others 6-deoxysolidagolactone IV-18,19-olid. Specfically, (-)-cyclocolorenone 8-32%), alpha pinene (4-7%), myrcene (2.5%),

p-cymene (0.6-2%), bornyl acetate (2.9-4.4%), germacrene D (21-23%), and smaller amounts of alpha and gamma gurjunene, ledol, and epi-torilenol.

S. nemoralis is also common and is more olive green in colour with a peculiar oil reminiscent of cypress oil. B-pinene, borneol, acetic and salicylic acids are present. No phellandrene, phenols, camphor, ketones, or aldehydes appear in this variety.

S. graminifolia- limonene (16.2%), beta phellandrene (15.4%), germacrene D (16.2%), beta pinene (10.3%), sabinene (8%) and minor amounts of bornyl acetate, terpineol-4, E-beta ocimene, alpha pinene, alpha carophyllene, delta cadinene and camphene.

S. rigida- sabinene (38-40%), limonene (25-27%), beta pinene (14-17%), alpha pinene (4-6%), terpin-1-en-4-ol (3.6-4%), with small amounts of mycrene, bornyl acetate, germacrene D, and alpha terpinene.

S. odora- 70% methyl carvicrol, 12.5% mycrene.

Goldenrod essential oil (S. canadensis) is steam distilled from the flowers and yields 0.5-2%. It is yellow orange with a very aromatic, pleasant odour.

It is anti-inflammatory, with beneficial effect on the solar and cardiac plexus.

It is useful in lowering elevated blood pressure, stimulating liver function, and is a powerful diuretic.

It is indicated when there is excitation of the heart, with a weak or irregular pulse; and for those of nervous, excitable dispositions.

It promotes expectoration in bronchitis and bronchial asthma.

Goldenrod oil could be used in chewing gum and candies, and has been suggested useful in insecticides and deodorants.

Aerial parts essential oil show activity against gram-positive bacteria, especially B. subtilis. The oil appears to have central and peripheral analgesic activity but no sedative or muscle relaxing property. The authors suggest their in vivo study justifies traditional use of plant for rheumatoid arthritis. Mishra D et al, J Pharm Res 2011 4:1 63-66.

The root essential oil shows activity against Streptococcus faecalis, E. coli and Candida albicans. Mishra et al, J Basic & Chin Pharmacy 2010 1:3.

DOSE- Combine with a carrier oil like canola or walnut and rub into affected areas in 5-10% dilutions. Internally combine one ml of oil with eight mls of alcohol. Take 15 drops doses in water for bronchial asthma, etc.

 

 

HYDROSOL

The distilled water of various Goldenrod species can be taken internally to promote urination, increase excretion of sand and gravel, and mucous from the kidneys and bladder. It makes an acceptable water rinse or gargle for sore gums, and mouth injuries.

The odour of Goldenrod (S. canadensis) is weedy, like wet hay, according to Suzanne Catty. The taste is dry, but when diluted is hardly noticeable.

It has a pH of 4.1-4.3, and is very stable. Catty considers the hydrosol to be strongly anti-inflammatory and moderately anti-spasmodic, and useful for sore muscles, stiff neck, tendonitis and repetitive motion injuries.

It may be useful over time to dissolve kidney stones.It may be useful as a before or after workout rub. Goldenrod hydrosol will lower blood pressure, so should not be used internally by hypotensive individuals.

The distilled water of this herb will promote urine, drive out sand, foul matter, and stones from the kidneys and bladder, and prove useful in treating bloody flux if taken in 3-4 loth doses often. For injuries to the mouth it may also be administered effectively as a gargle.    SAUER

 

 

SEED OIL

Oil from the seeds of goldenrod (S. canadensis) contains 62% linoleic acid, 26% oleic acid and small amounts of linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids.

 

 

FLOWER OIL

Use one part fresh flowering tops to five parts olive oil. Simmer in low temperature crock pot for six hours. Strain. Use as a fur ball oil, by applying small amounts to cat’s paws once a week. They will lick it off and help prevent fur balls.

This oil is very effective for strained or damaged muscles, ligaments and tendons in the manner of Arnica.

In fact, because Arnica cannot be used with heat, this oil may be better for severe uterine or ovarian cramping especially when combined with pressure and warmth. It combines well with poplar bud oil for various achy, arthritic limbs.

Old, slow healing wounds, including indolent ulcers respond well.

 

 

FLOWER ESSENCES

Goldenrod opens the conscious mind to wide spiritual inspiration. The flower essence can bring emotional relief to the overly philosophical, and balance the overly dogmatic, religious zealot; by bringing them in touch with their intuition. It helps urban dwellers become accustomed to their environment.    PEGASUS

Goldenrod essence supports strength, courage and determination.          CHOMING

Goldenrod (S. canadensis) flower essence is for those who seek negative attention from others in social situations, by being naughty, bad or repulsive. It is for those who feel insecure about them selves. This essence brings about real humility, love and mental realism about others, and our relationship with them.    HIMALAYA

Dune Goldenrod (S. decumbens) flower essence is for mental confusion, or feeling that life is a barren land without choice. It brings clarity and vision, allowing one to make healthy decisions for one’s growth.    CANADIAN

Meadow Goldenrod (S. canadensis) essence is about allowing the primal force of celebration to come up through the self and to permeate the psyche…It’s good for courage and also carries a certain quality of serenity in feeling necessity for change and the vitality of change itself.    HIGH SIERRA

Canadian Goldenrod flower essence is for those who either feel a need to conceal their true identities in social situations or who have a need for negative attention.    DARCY WILLIAMSON

 

 

 

SPIRITUAL PROPERTIES

“The fragrance and the colour and the form and the whole spiritual expression of goldenrods are hopeful and strength giving beyond any other I know. A single spike is sufficient to heal unbelief and melancholy.”    JOHN MUIR

Goldenrod has earned a bad reputation by spreading its pollen, and causing respiratory problems. As with all irritating or noxious plants, the remedy is found in the plant itself. A tea is made by boiling for two minutes the leaves and stems, and is drunk three times a day during the hay fever season.

The spiritual gift of the plant relates to an area symbolized by the sensitivity; the nasal sinuses. These cavities are connected to the third eye centre, which lives on the forehead, between and just above the line of the eyebrows.

They constitute a resonant cavity which amplifies the picture of etheric sight. By eating the flowers themselves, or by placing on the third eye, a dab of oil in which the flowers have been soaked, an opening of this centre is activated. Use either method 3X daily.    HILARION

Translated from the Latin, Solidago means “golden dagger”. Although we know it as Goldenrod, the dagger gives a clue to the qualities inherent in the flower. Daggers, knives and scythes are tools used to cut away, to separate, to reap what one has sown.

Rods, on the other hand, were used in ancient times as measuring tools. The method used to measure geometric proportions in the time of Paracelsus was called the “golden rule”.

The wise ones know me as the Golden Rule for I am the measuring stick of the harvest. What makes us gold is an expression of the law: as you sow, so shall you reap.    RUDGINSKY

 

 

PERSONALITY TRAITS

Goldenrod as a magical name is suggestive of a healer; a gentle, tender person who is better at healing the wounds than participating in the battle. It may be a name for a male or female, although the golden imagery that goes with the name is more suggestive of masculine energy.    MCFARLAND

But did you know that Goldenrod is also a first rate wound and bruise herb, wonderful for menstrual cramps, cystitis and yeast infections as well as being one of the finest remedies for injured, sore or tight muscles? It’s also purported by a few sensitive herbalists to be an effective anti-depressant, and is has even been used as a kidney yin tonic and digestive remedy.

Rather than looking at the lists of actions or constituents often available in herb books about a plant, it might be wiser to get a fuller sense of the herb’s personality and energy.

Goldenrod has a gentle, feminine spirit that is encouraging and cheerful. Most people find her slightly warming…She makes a wonderful ally for those who often feel a little sad, especially in the wintertime, have little endurance and difficulty following through. Her sunny disposition can brighten spirits and restore lost energy and drive. And lean in closer, smell her exquisite honey scent, I can feel her magic working already.    JESSE WOLF & KIVA ROSE

Scientists at Yale built an enclosure over an area of meadow containing grasshoppers. They mostly ate grass. They then introduced spiders that had their mouths glued shut.

The grasshoppers all but gave up eating grass, but instead chose to eat goldenrod, rich in sugars and carbohydrates. It appears, that when stressed out, grasshoppers binge on sugars and carbs, just like humans.       DROR HAWLENA

 

 

 

RECIPES

INFUSION- Take one tbsp of dried flower buds to one pint of water. Steep twenty minutes in hot water.

Drink one cup cool three times daily ten minutes before meals, in cases of kidney concerns. Six to twelve grams daily of plant material is needed for effective therapy.

When available, steep the fresh plant in cold water for eight hours for improved alterative action.

TINCTURE- 20-40 drops three times daily in water before meals.

Tincture can be made from the fresh plant at bud stage at 1:3 ratio with 45% alcohol; or dried matter at 1:5 and 25% alcohol.

Parke-Davis marketed a fluid extract of Goldenrod in the 1890s.

CAUTION- Do not use in cold, deficient conditions.

 

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